Europe has 47 countries, here you can see them all at a glance:
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- North Macedonia
- San Marino
- United Kingdom
The countries Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkey are not entirely in Europe. In addition, some of the European countries have territories in other parts of the world. For example, Denmark with Greenland or the Netherlands with Sint Maarten. The country Cyprus belongs geographically to Asia, but is often counted to Europe because of its cultural similarities to the European countries. This would make 48 countries in Europe.
On this page you will find all the important information about the countries of Europe.
Table of contents
The countries of Europe in detail
Below you will learn more details about the location, capitals and geography of the European countries. You will also find some additional information about each of the European countries.
The country of Albania is located on the Balkan Peninsula on the Adriatic Sea and the Ionian Sea. It was socialist until 1992 and one of the most isolated countries in the world. Today, Albania is one of the largest drug producers in Europe. At the same time, in terms of landscape, it is one of the most exciting countries on the continent. Albania is known for its vast amount of bunkers.
Albania fact sheet
Capital: Tirana (population: 418,000)
Population: 2.9 million
Area: 29,000 km²
Highest mountain: Korab (elevation: 2,764 meters)
The country of Andorra is located in the southwest of Europe between France and Spain in the Pyrenees. Its capital, Andorra la Vella, is located at an altitude of 1,011 meters, making it the highest capital in all of Europe. The country is the largest of the six European dwarf states.
Andorra fact sheet:
Capital: Andorra la Vella (population: 23,000)
Area: 500 km²
Highest mountain: Comapedrosa (elevation: 2,944 meters)
The country of Austria is located in the heart of Europe. Large parts of Austria are located in the Alps. Austria is one of the European countries where German is the official language.
Austria fact sheet:
Capital: Vienna (population: 1.9 million)
Population: 8.9 million
Area: 84,000 km²
Highest mountain: Großglockner (elevation: 3,798 meters)
Belarus is located in Eastern Europe on the border with Russia. The country is often referred to as the last dictatorship in Europe. Until 1991, Belarus was one of the Soviet republics of the Soviet Union.
Belarus fact sheet:
Capital: Minsk (population: 2 million)
Population: 9.4 million
Area: 208,000 km²
Highest mountain: Dsjarschynskaja Hara (elevation: 345 meters)
The country of Belgium is located in Western Europe on the North Sea. Its capital, Brussels, is also the headquarters of the European Union and NATO. Belgium is considered the most urbanized country in Europe. That is, in no other country in Europe is the percentage of inhabitants living in cities as large as in Belgium.
Belgium fact sheet:
Capital: Brussels (population: 182,000)
Population: 11 million
Area: 31,000 km²
Highest Mountain: Botrange (elevation: 694 meters)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The country of Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in the southeast of Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. The country has a narrow access to the Adriatic Sea, the so-called Neum Corridor. This piece of land divides the country of Croatia into two parts. Because the border traffic is quite complicated due to EU and soon possibly Schengen agreements, a bridge is to be built connecting both parts of Croatia. Both countries belonged to the socialist Yugoslavia. Bosnia and Herzegovina was one of the most important theaters of the Yugoslav wars.
Bosnien and Herzegovina fact sheeet:
Capital: Sarajevo (population: 291,000)
Population: 3.3 million
Area: 51,000 km²
Highest mountain: Maglić (elevation: 2,386 meters)
Bulgaria is located in the southeast of Europe on the Balkan Peninsula and is one of the countries that lies on the Black Sea. Bulgaria has a share of four high mountains. The Balkan Mountains, the Rila Mountains, the Pirin Mountains and the Rhodope Mountains. The country was socialist until 1990 and the traces of it can still be seen in many places. For example, the Buslujah monument.
Bulgaria fact sheet:
Capital: Sofia (population: 1.2 million)
Population: 7 million
Area: 111,000 km²
Highest mountain: Musala (elevation: 2,925 meters)
The country of Croatia is located on the Adriatic Sea and belongs to the Balkan Peninsula. Croatia also emerged from the former Yugoslavia. Croatia is divided into two parts by the Neum Corridor, which belongs to the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Croatia fact sheet:
Capital: Zagreb (population: 821,000)
Population: 4.1 million
Area: 57,000 km²
Highest mountain: Dinara (elevation: 1,831 meters)
Special case Cyprus
Cyprus is an island nation and the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It actually belongs to Asia. However, culturally and politically the country is counted as part of Europe. The north of the island is occupied by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, so the territory of the Republic of Cyprus currently extends only on the southern side of the island.
Cyprus fact sheet:
Capital: Nikosia (population: 276,000)
Population: 1.1 million
Area: 9,000 km²
Highest mountain: Olympos (elevation: 1,952 meters)
The Czech Republic is located in Central Europe and is one of the neighboring countries of Germany. Together with Slovakia and part of Ukraine, the Czech Republic was Czechoslovakia, i.e. a socialist state, until 1992.
Czech Republic fact sheet:
Capital: Prague (population: 1.3 million)
Population: 10.6 million
Area: 79,000 km²
Highest mountain: Sněžka (elevation: 1,603 meters)
The country of Denmark is located in the north of Europe on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea and belongs to Scandinavia. A part of Denmark is also Greenland, which, however, does not belong to Europe, but to North America. Denmark is therefore a country that lies on two continents.
Denmark fact sheet:
Capital: Copenhagen (population: 632,000)
Population: 5.8 million
Area: 43,000 km²
Highest mountain: Møllehøj (elevation: 171 meters)
The country of Estonia is located in Eastern Europe and is the northernmost of the three Baltic countries. In the east of the country on the border with Russia is Lake Peipus. Lake Peipus is the fifth largest lake in Europe and almost seven times the size of Lake Constance. In the west, Estonia shares the Baltic Sea coast.
Estonia fact sheet:
Capital: Tallinn (population: 435,000)
Population: 1.3 million
Area: 45,000 km²
Highest mountain: Suur Munamägi (elevation: 318 meters)
The country of Finland is located in Europe’s north and belongs to the Scandinavian countries. Finland is located on the Baltic Sea and is one of the most sparsely populated countries in Europe. The landscape of Finland is known for its large number of lakes. In fact, there are almost 200,000 lakes there.
Finland fact sheet:
Capital: Helsinki (population: 648,000)
Population: 5.5 million
Area: 338,000 km²
Highest mountain: Haltitunturi (elevation: 1,324 meters)
The country of France is located in Western Europe and is the second largest country on the continent in terms of area after Ukraine, which is located entirely in Europe. In the north, France has coasts on the North Sea and the English Channel, in the west on the Atlantic Ocean and in the south on the Mediterranean Sea. France has part of two high mountain ranges. Namely, the Alps and the Pyrenees are located in France. With Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in Europe is also located in France. At least, if you don’t count the even higher mountains in the Caucasus to Europe. France has some overseas departments that are not in Europe.
France fact sheet:
Capital: Paris (population: 2.2 million)
Population: 67.4 million
Area: 633,000 km²
Highest mountain: Mont Blanc (elevation: 4,810 meters)
The country of Germany is located in the middle of Europe. Germany is the country that has the most inhabitants of all the countries that are completely located in Europe. The north of Germany lies on both the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. In the south, the country still has a small part of the Alps. The country of Germany consists of 16 federal states.
Germany fact sheet:
Capital: Berlin (population: 3.7 million)
Population: 83.2 million
Area: 358,000 km²
Highest mountain: Zugspitze (elevation: 2,962 meters)
The country of Greece is located in the southeast of Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. Ancient Greece was a European advanced civilization and is a symbol of natural science, philosophy and democracy. Greece is located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
Greece fact sheet:
Capital: Athens (population: 664,000)
Population: 10.7 million
Area: 132,000 km²
Highest mountain: Mykitas in Olympus (elevation: 2,918 meters)
The country of Hungary is located in eastern Central Europe. It has no access to a sea. However, Lake Balaton, which is considered the largest lake in Central Europe, is located in Hungary. The lake is very shallow. At its deepest point it is less than 13 meters deep.
Hungary fact sheet:
Capital: Budapest (population: 1.8 million)
Population: 9.8 million
Area: 93,000 km²
Highest mountain: Kékes (elevation: 1,014 meters)
The country of Iceland is also an island nation in the northwest of Europe. It belongs – at least according to some definitions – to Scandinavia and is known for its wild volcanic landscape. With only 3.5 inhabitants per square kilometer, Iceland is the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Iceland fact sheet:
Capital: Reykjavík (population: 12,000)
Area: 103,000 km²
Highest mountain: Hvannadalshnúkur (elevation: 2,110 meters)
Ireland is located on an island in the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Part of the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland) is on the same island. Here one of the current conflicts in Europe is smoldering. One party stands for a united Ireland and the separation of Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom. The other party stands for Northern Ireland remaining in the United Kingdom.
Ireland fact sheet:
Capital: Dublin (population: 553,000)
Population: 4.9 million
Area: 70,000 km²
Highest mountain: Carrantuohill (elevation: 1,039 meters)
The country of Italy is located in the south of Europe. The two largest islands of the Mediterranean belong to Italy. Namely Sicily and Sardinia. In ancient times, Italy was the center of the Roman Empire. The landscape of Italy is very mountainous over large areas.
Italy fact sheet:
Capital: Rome (population: 2.8 million)
Population: 60 million
Area: 301,000 km²
Highest mountain: Depending on the border definitions with France, Mont Blanc (elevation: 4,810 meters) or Mont Blanc de Courmayeur (elevation: 4,748 meters).
Kazakhstan is one of the few countries in Europe that is not completely located in Europe. In fact, the largest part of Kazakhstan is located in Asia. Only about 5% of the country belongs to Europe.
Capital: Nur-Sultan (population: 1.2 million)
Population: 18.9 million
Area: 2,725,000 km²
Highest mountain: Khan Tengri (elevation: 7,010 meters)
Kosovo is located in the southeast of Europe. The country belongs to the Balkan Peninsula. Kosovo emerged from the country of Yugoslavia. The country’s status under international law is currently not fully clarified, but more than half of the members of the United Nations recognize Kosovo as a country.
Kosovo fact sheet:
Capital: Pristina (population: 145,000)
Population: 1.9 million
Area: 11,000 km²
Highest mountain: Rudoka (elevation: 2,658 meters)
The country of Latvia is one of the three Baltic states and is located in the east of Central Europe. Until 1990 Latvia was one of the Soviet republics of the Soviet Union. Latvia has part of the Baltic Sea coast.
Latvia fact sheet:
Capital: Riga (population: 697,000)
Population: 1.9 million
Area: 65,000 km²
Highest mountain: Gaising (elevation: 312 meters)
The country of Liechtenstein is one of the smallest countries in Europe. It is located in Central Europe between Austria and Switzerland. Liechtenstein is the sixth smallest country in the world and the smallest country where German is the official language.
Liechtenstein fact sheet:
Capital: Vaduz (population: 6,000)
Area: 161 km²
Highest mountain: Falknishorn (elevation: 2,452 meters)
The country of Lithuania belongs to the Baltic States and is located in the east of Central Europe. Until 1990 Lithuania belonged to the Soviet Union as one of the Soviet Republics. The country is located on the Baltic Sea.
Lithuania fact sheet:
Capital: Vilnius (population: 574,000)
Population: 2.8 Millionen
Area: 65,000 km²
Highest mountain: Aukštojas (elevation: 294 meters)
The country of Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe. It is located in Central Europe between its neighbors Belgium, Germany and France. Together with Belgium and the Netherlands it forms the so-called Benelux countries.
Luxembourg fact sheet:
Capital: Luxembourg (population: 119,000)
Area: 2,600 km²
Highest mountain: Kneiff (elevation: 160 meters)
The country of Malta is an island nation in the Mediterranean Sea, one of the southernmost countries in Europe and also one of the smallest countries on the continent. Besides Maltese, English is also an official language in Malta.
Malta fact sheet:
Capital: Valletta (population: 6,000)
Area: 316 km²
Highest mountain: Ta’ Dmejrek (elevation: 253 meters)
The country Moldova is officially called Republic of Moldova and is located in the east of Europe between Romania and Ukraine. In Moldova lies the territory of Transnistria, which is controlled by its own regime. The conflict between Transnistria and Moldova is one of the follow-up conflicts of the dissolution of the Soviet Union and continues to this day.
Moldova fact sheet:
Capital: Chișinău (population: 533,000)
Population: 3.6 million
Area: 34,000 km²
Highest mountain: Dealul Bălănești (elevation: 430 meters)
Monaco is one of the smallest countries in Europe. It is located on the Mediterranean coast and is completely surrounded on the land side by its neighboring country France. Monaco is a tax haven for moneybags and its district Monte-Carlo is home to a world-famous casino. Monaco is the most densely populated country in Europe.
Monaco fact sheet:
Capital: Monaco (population: 38,000)
Area: 2 km²
Highest mountain: slope of Mont Angel (elevation: 161 meters)
The country of Montenegro is located in the southeast of Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. Montenegro has a coast to the Adriatic Sea, a part of the Mediterranean Sea. The country is located in the Dinaric Mountains and wild canyons run through the mountains. The Tara Gorge in Montenegro is considered the deepest gorge in all of Europe.
Montenegro fact sheet:
Capital: Podgorica (population: 151,000)
Area: 14,000 km²
Highest mountain: Zla Kolata (elevation: 2,534 meters)
The Netherlands is located in Central Europe on the North Sea. The Netherlands also includes some areas in the Caribbean. Together with Belgium and Luxembourg, the Netherlands form the Benelux countries.
Netherlands fact sheet:
Capital: Amsterdam (population: 873,000)
Population: 17.5 million
Area: 42,000 km²
Highest mountaing outside the caribbean areas: Vaalserberg (elevation: 322 meters)
The country of North Macedonia is located in the southeast of Europe in the Balkans. North Macedonia also emerged from the former country of Yugoslavia. Until 2018, there was a dispute with Greece over the name of the country. In the course of the settlement of the dispute, the name of the country was changed from Macedonia to North Macedonia.
North Macedonia fact sheet:
Capital: Skopje (population: 544,000)
Population: 2.1 million
Area: 26,000 km²
Highest mountain: Korab (elevation: 2,764 meters)
The country of Norway is located in Europe’s north and is one of the Scandinavian countries. Norway is considered the most developed country in the world and also the most democratic country in the world. It is also one of the richest countries in the world. The landscape is characterized by impressive mountains and fjords.
Norway fact sheet:
Capital: Oslo (population: 697,000)
Population: 5.4 million
Area: 385,000 km²
Highest mountain: Galdhøpiggen (elevation: 2.469 meters)
The country of Poland is located in Central Europe and is one of the larger countries on the continent. In the north, Poland has a part of the Baltic Sea coast. In the south, part of the High Tatras mountain range is located on Polish territory.
Poland fact sheet:
Capital: Warsaw (population: 1.8 million)
Population: 38.4 million
Area: 313,000 km²
Highest mountain: Northwest peak of Rysy (elevation: 2,500 meters)
The country of Portugal is located in the far west of Europe on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean on the Iberian Peninsula, where the country of Spain is also located. Besides Madeira, the Azores archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean also belongs to Portugal. Portugal is also home to the westernmost point of the European continent, Cabo da Roca.
Portugal fact sheet:
Capital: Lisbon (population: 553,000)
Population: 10.3 million
Area: 92,000 km²
Highest mountain: Ponta do Pico (elevation: 2,351 meters)
The country of Romania is located in the east of Central Europe on the Black Sea. A large part of the Carpathian Mountains is located in Romania. Romania is home to the region of Transylvania, which is the home of the legend of Count Dracula.
Romania fact sheet:
Capital: Bucharest (population: 1.8 million)
Population: 20.1 million
Area: 238,000 km²
Highest mountain: Moldoveanu (elevation: 2,544 meters)
Russia is located in the very east of Europe. Of the total area of Russia, only about a quarter is located in Europe. Russia is the largest country in the world and the European part of Russia is also the largest country in Europe in terms of area. The highest mountain of Russia is Mount Elbrus, which is also called the highest mountain of Europe, depending on the definition of Europe.
Russia fact sheet:
Capital: Moscow (population: 11.5 million)
Population: 144.5 million
Area: 17,065,000 km²
Highest mountain: Elbrus (elevation: 5,642 meters)
The country of San Marino is located in the middle of Italy in Southern Europe. Except for the two city-states of Vatican and Monaco, San Marino is the smallest country in all of Europe. Moreover, San Marino is considered the oldest republic in the world. It was founded around 300 AD.
San Marino fact sheet:
Capital: San Marino (population: 4,000)
Area: 61 km²
Highest mountain: Titano (elevation: 739 meters)
The country of Serbia is located on the Balkan Peninsula in the southeast of Europe. Serbia is considered the main successor state of the former Yugoslavia. Within this framework, Serbia was involved in several armed conflicts with its neighboring countries in the recent history of Europe. The traces of this can still be seen today.
Serbia fact sheet:
Capital: Belgrade (population: 1.3 million)
Population: 6.9 million
Area: 77,000 km²
Highest mountain: Midschur (elevation: 2,169 meters)
Slovakia is located in eastern Central Europe and together with the Czech Republic and part of Ukraine was Czechoslovakia until 1992. The country is part of the Carpathian Mountains.
Slovakia fact sheet:
Caapital: Bratislava (population: 438,000)
Population: 5.5 million
Area: 49,000 km²
Highest mountain: Gerlachovský štít (elevation: 2,654 meters)
The country of Slovenia is located between Italy, Austria and Croatia on the Adriatic Sea. Slovenia was the first country to break away from Yugoslavia in 1991, which marked the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars. Today, Slovenia is considered the most prosperous of the countries of the former Yugoslavia.
Slovenia fact sheet:
Capital: Ljubljana (population: 284,000)
Population: 2.1 million
Area: 20,000 km²
Highest mountain: Triglav (elevation: 2,864 meters)
The country of Spain is, next to Portugal, the second country on the Iberian Peninsula in the very southwest of Europe. Besides the mainland, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea belong to Spain.
Spain fact sheet:
Capital: Madrid (population: 3.3 million)
Population: 47.1 million
Area: 506,000 km²
Highest mountain on the Spanish mainland: Mulhacén (elevation: 3,482 meters)
Highest mountain in the Canary Islands: Pico del Teide (elevation: 3,715 meters)
The country of Sweden is located in the north of Europe and belongs to the countries of Scandinavia. Sweden is the country with the longest coastline on the Baltic Sea.
Sweden fact sheet:
Capital: Stockholm (population: 950,000)
Population: 10.3 million
Area: 447,000 km²
Highest mountain: Kebnekaise (elevation: 2,097 meters)
Switzerland is located in the center of Central Europe and has four official languages: German, French, Italian and Romansh. About half of Switzerland’s area is located in the Alps, and some of the most spectacular places in these mountains are on the territory of Switzerland.
Switzerland fact sheet:
Capital: none (seat of government is Bern with 134,000 inhabitants)
Population: 8.6 million
Area: 41,000 km²
Highest mountain: Dufour Peak (elevation: 4,634 meters)
Turkey is located in the very southeast of Europe. Only a small part of its total area is in Europe, the rest in Asia. The European part of the country makes about 3 percent of the total area. Turkey is located on the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea.
Capital: Ankara (population: 5.7 million)
Population: 83.6 million
Area: 784,000 km²
Highest mountain: Ararat (elevation: 5,137 meters)
Ukraine is located in the east of Europe and is the largest country in terms of area that lies entirely in Europe. Until the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was one of the Soviet republics. Today, there is a military conflict with Russia in the east of the country. In the south, Ukraine shares the coast of the Black Sea.
Ukraine fact sheet:
Capital: Kiew (population: 3 million)
Population: 41.8 million
Area: 604,000 km²
Highest mountain: Howerla (elevation: 2,061 meters)
The United Kingdom is a country in the northwest of Europe. The country is the largest island nation of Europe. Three of the four parts of the United Kingdom are on one island. Namely England, Scotland and Wales. This island is called the United Kingdom. Together with the country of Ireland, the fourth part of the country, Northern Ireland, is located on another island.
United Kingdom fact sheet:
Capital: London (population: 9 million)
Population: 66.8 million
Area: 249,000 km²
Highest mountain: Ben Nevis (elevation: 1,345 meters)
The Vatican is officially called Vatican City and is a city-state located in the middle of the Italian capital, Rome. The Vatican is the smallest country in Europe (and in the world) both in terms of area and population. The seat of the Pope is in the Vatican, and he is also its head of state.
Vatican fact sheet:
Capital: Vatican City (population: less than 500)
Population: less than 500
Area: 0.4 km²
Highest mountain: Vatican Hill (elevation: 75 meters)
Major regions of the countries of Europe
Some of the countries of Europe are grouped into major regions. These groups are created, for example, due to geographical, historical or political similarities of these countries.
The peninsula in southeastern Europe is known as the Balkan Peninsula or simply the Balkans. The name Balkans is derived from the Balkan Mountains, which cover large parts of the peninsula. The countries located on the Balkans have been the scene of warlike conflicts several times in the recent history of Europe. In the countries of Europe that are located in the Balkans, today you can find not only the traces of these wars, but also the traces of the socialism that has now passed.
Scandinavia is a large region in the north of Europe. The countries that belong to Scandinavia are among the richest and most developed countries on the continent. Again, the name Scandinavia is derived from the Scandinavian peninsula, on which the countries of Finland, Norway and Sweden are located in whole or in part.
The Baltic States are Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. They are all three located on the Baltic Sea coast. Until the dissolution of the Soviet Union, all three countries of the Baltic States were Soviet republics. Originally, the name Baltic comes from the Baltic Sea, which today corresponds to the Baltic Sea.
The Benelux countries are the European countries of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. That is where the name Benelux comes from. Unlike the Balkans, Scandinavia and the Baltic States, Benelux is not only a geographical indication, but also an economic union with corresponding administrative bodies.
The Visegrád Group consists of the European countries of Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Visegrád Group has no formal institutions, but is rather a loose alliance of the four countries to agree and coordinate political positions.
Central, Southern, Eastern, Northern and Western Europe
The designations Central, Southern, Eastern, Northern and Western Europe are of a colloquial nature rather than being precisely defined. For some countries, however, there is agreement as to which of the five areas they belong to. Roughly speaking, the classification of the countries of Europe can be made as follows.
Central Europe: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland
Southern Europe: Andorra, Italy, Malta, Monaco, Portugal, Spain, San Marino, Vatican City
Eastern Europe and Southeastern Europe: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Greece, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, Northern Macedonia, Russia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, Belarus, Cyprus
Northern Europe: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
Western Europe: Belgium, France, Ireland, Netherlands, United Kingdom
Superlatives of the countries of Europe
The highest mountain located in the countries of Europe is Mount Elbrus. It is 5,642 meters high and is located in Russia. But since Elbrus is located in Asia, depending on the definition of Europe’s borders, Mont Blanc is also often given as the highest mountain in Europe. It is 4,810 meters high and is located in the country of France.
The largest lake located in the countries of Europe is Lake Ladoga. It has an area of 17,700 square kilometers and is located in Russia. It is about 33 times larger than Lake Constance. The largest lake in a country located entirely in Europe is Lake Vänern in Sweden. It has an area of about 5,500 square kilometers and is thus still more than 10 times larger than Lake Constance.
The largest city in all the countries of Europe is Moscow, which is also the capital of Russia. Moscow has 12.5 million inhabitants. The second largest city in the countries of Europe is Istanbul with 9.7 inhabitants. However, Istanbul is only partially located in Europe. The largest city of a country that is completely in Europe is London in the United Kingdom with 9 million inhabitants.
The longest river in Europe is the Volga. It is about 3,500 kilometers long. It flows through only one country, Russia. The longest river that flows only through countries that are entirely in Europe is the Danube. It is 2,845 kilometers long.
Data of the countries of Europe at a glance
In the following table you will find the most important data of the countries of Europe summarized at a glance.
|Country||Capital||Major regions of Europe||Area in km²||Population||Facts and superlatives|
|Albania||Tirana||Balkans||29,000||2.9 million||Country with the most bunkers|
|Andorra||Andorra la Vella||500||77,000||Dwarf state, highest capital of all countries of Europe|
|Belarus||Minsk||208,000||9.4 million||Possibly last dictatorship in Europe, former Soviet republic|
|Belgium||Brussel||Benelux countries||31,000||11 million||European Union Headquarters|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Sarajevo||Balkans||51,000||3.3 million|
|Cyprus||Nikosia||9,000||1.1 million||Northern part of the country occupied by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, island state|
|Czech Republic||Prague||79,000||10.6 million|
|Estonia||Tallinn||Baltic states||45,000||1.3 million|
|France||Paris||633,000||67.4 million||Country with the highest mountain in Europe|
|Germany||Berlin||358,000||83.2 million||Country with the most inhabitants in Europe|
|Iceland||Reykjavík||Scandinavia||103,000||361,000||Island state, most sparsely populated country in Europe|
|Ireland||Dublin||70,000||4.9 million||Island state|
|Kasakhstan||Nur-Sultan||2.7 million||18.9 million||Not entirely in Europe|
|Latvia||Riga||Baltic states||65,000||1.9 million|
|Lithunia||Vilnius||Baltic states||65,000||2.8 million|
|Monaco||Monaco||2||38,000||City state, most densely populated country in Europe|
|Netherlands||Amsterdam||Benelux countries||42,000||17.5 million|
|North Macedonia||Skopje||Balkans||26,000||2.1 million|
|Norway||Oslo||Scandinavia||385,000||5.4 million||Most developed country in Europe|
|Russia||Moscow||17 million||144.5 million||Not entirely in Europe|
|San Marino||San Marino||61||33,000||Dwarf state|
|Turkey||Ankara||Balkans||784,000||83.6 million||Not entirely in Europe|
|Ukraine||Kiew||604,000||41.8 million||Largest country by area, located entirely in Europe|
|United Kingdom||London||249,000||66.8 million||First country to leave the European Union again, island nation, largest capital of a country located entirely in Europe|
|Vatican||Vatican||0.4||Less than 500||Smallest country in Europe, seat of the Pope, city-state|
|Europe total||11 million||750 million|
Former countries of Europe
Since the end of the Second World War in 1945, there were some countries in Europe that no longer exist today.
From 1945 to 1992, there was a country called Yugoslavia in the southeast of Europe. The country was a communist dictatorship. During the Yugoslav Wars, Yugoslavia dissolved completely between 1991 and 2003. The successor countries of the former Yugoslavia today are Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Croatia, Montenegro, Northern Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia. The capital of Yugoslavia was Belgrade, which is now the capital of Serbia.
The Soviet Union was a country that existed from 1922 to 1991 and was partially located in Eastern Europe. The rest of the Soviet Union was in Asia. Of the countries in Europe today, the following were members of the Soviet Union as so-called Soviet Republics: Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. The capital of the Soviet Union was Moscow.
The European country of Czechoslovakia existed from 1918 to 1992. Czechoslovakia consisted of what is now Slovakia and the Czech Republic, as well as parts of what is now Ukraine. The capital of Czechoslovakia was Prague.
German Democratic Republic (GDR)
The German Democratic Republic (GDR) was one of the countries of Europe from 1949 to 1990. After Germany was liberated from the Nazis, the victorious powers – France, the Soviet Union, the USA and the United Kingdom – divided the German territory among themselves. The part controlled by the Soviet Union became the GDR.
Conflicts between the countries of Europe
Since the end of the Second World War there have been and still are some conflicts between the countries of Europe. Here you can find an overview of the most important conflicts between the countries of Europe.
The Yugoslav Wars were some wars in the Balkan Peninsula related to the dissolution of Yugoslavia. Basically, the issue was that the constituent states of Yugoslavia were gradually declaring their independence and the central government in Serbia wanted to prevent that. The wars were among the most devastating between the countries of modern Europe. In total, the various wars lasted about 10 years – from 1991 to 2001, and the death toll is believed to be well over 100,000. Some terrible massacres took place in the countries of Europe during this period.
The conflict in eastern Ukraine has existed since 2014 and continues today. Simply summarized, it is about the separation of eastern Ukraine from the rest of Ukraine. The separatists are unofficially supported by Russia, which also occupied the Ukrainian peninsula of Crimea in the Black Sea. Well over 5,000 people have lost their lives in this war so far.
The Transnistrian conflict has been taking place in the European country of Moldova since 1990 until today and is one of the consequences of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The sub-region of Transnistria demands its independence from Moldova. More than 500 people have died in the fighting. However, the situation is currently stable.
Northern Ireland conflict
The Northern Ireland conflict was a civil war-like conflict in Northern Ireland. It lasted from 1969 to 1998 and was ended by a cease-fire. Simply put, Protestants in favor of remaining in the United Kingdom and Catholics in favor of Northern Ireland becoming part of the European country of Ireland faced each other in this conflict. More than 3,000 people have died. Since the unrest surrounding the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union, this conflict has flared up again.